FFA Land Use Career Development Event

LAND-USE SCORECARD HELP SHEET

I.    LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISTICS

A.  Percent Slope (p. 4)

  1. Read the surveying rod and subtract it from your eye height________.  Divide that number by the slope length that is given.  Multiply your answer by 100 which equals your slope.

II.    PROFILE CHARACTERISTICS

  1. Thickness of plow layer (p. 6)

1.  Plow layer thickness is the number of inches above the subsoil or the A2   Horizon.

2.  Measure with a yardstick

B.  Color of topsoil (p. 6)

  1. Take a sample from topsoil, wet it, and match the soil to your soil color chart.

C.  Grayish A2 horizon (p. 7)

1.  Check if a grayish layer of soil lies between the topsoil and subsoil.

  1. Subsoil Color (p. 7)

1.  Check for any gray coloring in the subsoil and measure the depth at which it  begins.

  1. If mottling occurs above 24” in the soil profile, mark gray or brown mottled.
  2. Directly transfer answer to internal drainage and aeration.
  3. Soil Texture (p. 7-8)

1.  Look to see if there are three horizons.

2.  Take a sample from each horizon and form a ball with water 1 inch in diameter.

3.  Press out between your thumb and index finger

  1. Use this information to mark you answer in each category:

-COARSE:  very gritty; little or no tendency to stick together.

-MODERATELY COURSE:  no ribbon forms; gritty; tends to stick together slightly.

-MEDIUM:  no ribbon forms; soil will cling together and feels smooth and talclike.

-MODERATELY FINE:  forms a ribbon about ¾” long; sticky a plastic feeling.

-FINE:  forms a ribbon 1-3” long, sticky, smooth feeling, leaves stain on fingers.

-BEDROCK:  only found in substratum

-ORGANIC MATERIAL:  Spongy decayed plant material

  1. Check last space if horizon is not present in profile.
  2. Soil Structure (p. 8-9)

1.  Single grain- sand

2.  Massive- breaks in a large mass, found in substratum

3.  Granular- small particles found in topsoils

  1. Platy- Compacted layers in the soil profile
  2. Blocky- Block-like structures, found in subsoils
  3. Prismatic- Long rectangular structures, found in subsoil.

 

III.    ASSOCIATED SOIL FEATURES

A.    Internal Drainage (p. 9)

  1. Determined by subsoil color from part II.D.
  2. Well Drained:  have brown or yellowish brown subsoils and no gray mottling.
  3. Moderately Well Drained:  Have upper subsoils that are brown or yellowish brown and are free of gray mottling.  Gray mottling occurs below 24” of the topsoil.
  4. Somewhat Poorly Drained:  Gray and brown mottled throughout.
  5. Poorly and very poorly drained:  Gray and olive gray subsoils.  Few brown mottles.

B.    Surface Run-off (p. 9)

  1. Use Table 1 and the percent slope and the finest soil texture in the upper 36” of the profile from II.E.

 

Table 1.  Relationship of Soil Texture, Bedrock, and Percent Slope to Surface Runoff IIIB

                     ____ Texture of Finest Textured Horizon in Upper 36”_______

Surface                      Coarse and                                Medium and                                                    Bedrock at

Runoff                 Moderately coarse                   Moderately fine                     Fine                   Less than 36”

  % Slope                        % Slope                    % Slope                                    % Slope   

Rapid                More than 30%                 More than 15%          More than 10%     More than 10%

Medium             15% to 30%                      5% to 15%                 2% to 10%            2% to 10%

Slow                   0% to 15%                        0% to 5%                   0% to 2%              0% to 2%

None                    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Areas subject to ponding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

None                    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Areas subject to flooding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

 

C.    Permeability (p. 10)

  1. Use information found form II.E.
  2. Rapid- Coarse and moderately course soils
  3. Moderate- Medium and moderately fine textures, may be fine or granular subsoils.
  4. Slow- Fine textured soil with prismatic, columnar, or large blocky soils

D.    Soil Depth (p. 10-11)

  1. Depth of soil suitable for root growth.  Gravel or clay pans will limit root

Growth.

  1. Most crops will have roots 3-4 feet in length.

E.    Available Water Holding Capacity (p. 11)

  1. Use Tables 2 and 3 to determine total
  2. Measure topsoil and subsoil and put in Table 3
  3. Use texture of each horizon to find the average water holding capacity.

 

Table 2.  Inches of Available Water Holding Capacity for Soil of Various Texture Groups Per Inch of Soil

 

Soil Texture Group                                                                         Available Water Holding Capacity              

Range (inches/in.)                           Average (inches/in.)

Fine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       .15 – .20                                                  .20

Moderately fine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         .20 – .25                                                   .25

Medium. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         .20 – .30                                                .30

Moderately coarse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         .10 – .20                                            .15

Coarse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       less than .10                                                        .05

Organic soils (peat and muck). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        less than .25

 

Table 3.  Estimating Available Water Holding Capacity in Inches for Soil Judging in Illinois

Thickness                                        Inches of Available Water  

of Horizon                                   Per Inch of                      In Soil

Horizon                 Texture                      (inches)                                       Soil Material              Horizon

A                          Medium                                        18                        X                       .30                =             5.4

B                       Moderately fine                             18                      X                    .25                =             4.5

C                       Medium                                     24                      X                    .30                =             7.2

Total                      ——————                           60                                            —–                             17.1

In estimating available water holding capacity, use the soil depth for rooting up to a maximum of 60 inches.

 

 

 

IV.    SOIL USE AND MANAGEMENT

A.    Soil Loss Equation (p. 14-15)

  1. Use C  =  Z/LS
  2. Z is given.  LS is found by using Table 4 with given slope and slope distance.
  3. Mark rotation equal to or less than C factor with Table below.
  4. Only 1 mark per rotation.

 

Table 4.  Values of the Topographic Factor (LS) for Specific Combinations of Slope Length and Steepness

Slope                                                                     Slope length (feet)

(percentage)            25          50           75          100         150         200         300         400           500         600

0.8 …………

0.09

0.10

0.11

0.11

0.12

0.13

0.14

0.15

0.16

0.16

2 ……………

0.13

0.16

0.19

0.20

0.23

0.25

0.28

0.31

0.33

0.34

3 ……………

0.19

0.23

0.26

0.29

0.33

0.35

0.40

0.44

0.47

0.49

4 ……………

0.23

0.30

0.36

0.40

0.47

0.53

0.62

0.70

0.76

0.82

5 ……………

0.27

0.38

0.46

0.54

0.66

0.76

0.93

1.07

1.20

1.31

6 ……………

0.34

0.48

0.58

0.67

0.82

0.95

1.17

1.35

1.50

1.65

8 ……………

0.50

0.70

0.86

0.99

1.21

1.41

1.72

1.98

2.22

2.43

10 ………….

0.69

0.97

1.19

1.37

1.68

1.94

2.37

2.74

3.06

3.36

12 ………….

0.90

1.28

1.56

1.80

2.21

2.55

3.13

3.61

4.04

4.42

14 ………….

1.15

1.62

1.99

2.30

2.81

3.25

3.98

4.59

5.13

5.62

16 ………….

1.42

2.01

2.46

2.84

3.48

4.01

4.92

5.68

6.35

6.95

18 ………….

1.72

2.43

2.97

3.43

4.21

3.86

5.95

6.87

7.68

8.41

20 ………….

2.04

2.88

3.53

4.08

5.00

5.77

7.07

8.16

9.12

10.00

Both slope length and slope steepness must be determined on the specific field segment where you are estimating soil erosion.  Slope length is the distance from the point of origin of overland flow to the point where (1) the slope gradient decreases enough that sediment deposition begins, (2) the runoff water becomes a concentrated flow, or (3) the runoff enters a well-defined channel that may be part of the natural drainage network or a constructed channel such as a grass waterway or terrace channel.

Maximum amount of tillage (C Value) that could be used for each rotation for Southern Illinois

 

   

Conventional Tillage

 

Chisel or Large Disk Tillage

 

Zero Till

Rotation

Does Not Apply

Fall Plow

Spring Plow

20% residue*

30% residue*

40% residue*

50% residue*

60% residue*

70% residue*

80% residue*

90% residue*

Continuous Corn  

.38

.25 .20 .15 .15 .13 .07 .05 .04 .03
Corn-Soybeans  

.42

.31 .27 .21 .21 .20 .08      
Corn-soybeans-Small grain  

.32

.24 .18 .15 .14   .05      
Corn-soybeans-Small grain–Meadow  

 

.17

.13 .10 .09 .09 .08 .04 .03 .03  
Restricted Use pasture, Hayland, Woodland, or Wildlife Yes  No

                 
*Soil Surface cover after planting                    

 

 

 

 

V.    NONAGRICULTURAL USE (p. 16-17)

A.  Use Tables 6 and 7 and information found above.

B.   Use the below symbols for part #1:

  1. O – None to slight
  2. M – Moderate
  3. S – Severe

(Each blank should be filled in.)

C.   For Part #2, the most severe mark made in either column of part 1 should

determine where you put a mark.  (Only one check per column.)

 

 

Table 6.  Degree That Soil Factors Limit Soil Use for Homesites

 

                                                    Degree of Limitation                                                          

Soil Factor                           None to slight           0               Moderate          M                        Severe          S

Percent slope                       0% to 10%                                10% to 15%                                 More than 15%

 

Internal drainage and          Well drained                             Moderately well and                          Poorly drained

aeration                                                                       somewhat poorly drained

 

Flooding or ponding           No probability of                      ————————                      If subject to

ponding or flooding                                                                ponding or flooding

 

Soil depth to bedrock         More than 36”                           ————————                     36” or less

 

Permeability                       Moderate                                   ————————                     Slow – Rapid

 

 

 

Table 7.  Degree That Soil Factors Limit Soil Use for Septic Tank Filter Fields

 

 

                                                    Degree of Limitation                                                          

Soil Factor                           None to slight             0                 Moderate          M                     Severe          S

Percent slope                       0% to 10%                                10% to 15%                              More than 15%

 

Internal drainage and          Well drained                             Moderately well                              Somewhat poorly

aeration                                                                                             drained                                      drained or drained

 

Flooding or ponding           No probability of                      ————————                  If subject to

ponding or flooding                                                                ponding or flooding

 

Soil depth to bedrock         More than 36”                           ————————                   36” or less

 

Permeability                       Moderate                                   ——————–                                   Rapid (Pollution

problem to water

                                                                                                                                                                                supplies)                

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